- Frontal Lobes
- Among the lobes of the brain, the frontal lobes have the main responsibility for executive functions; neuropsychiatric lesions of the frontal lobes are likely to result in disinhibition, apathy, and executive deficits such as lack of persistence and perseveration (too much persistence). This kind of knowledge was built up in years of experience with head trauma: noting the deficits that a particular injury produced. (See Body Image: Disturbances of: Head .) Yet, in functional psychiatric illness (depression, schizophrenia, and other major disorders without a known structural cause), the frontal lobes have a particular role as well. In 1913, in the eighth edition of his textbook, Emil Kraepelin noted that the histological findings of a number of researchers pointed to some kind of lesion in the frontal lobes (Psychiatrie, 8th ed., III , p. 903). Yet, the light microscopes used by that generation of investigators were unable to spot differences in the size of various brain structures in health and illness: They could only note disorder in the various cell layers of the cerebral cortex.With the advent of sophisticated techniques of neuroimaging in the 1970s and after, however, it became possible to detect differences in the size and function of various brain structures in schizophrenics compared to controls. At this point, investigators revived the "hypofrontality" hypothesis of schizophrenia. In 1974 in the Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, David H. Ingvar (1924–2000) and Göran Franzén (1929–), of the departments of clinical neurophysiology and psychiatry at Lund University, using radionuclides, noted abnormalities in blood flow in the frontal lobes of schizophrenic patients. In 1985, in a volume on localizing schizophrenia that was edited by Nancy Andreasen, Daniel Weinberger (1947–), then chief of the section on neuropsychiatry at the National Institute of Mental Health, asked "Is schizophrenia a frontal lobe disease?" and mobilized the evidence that pointed to yes. Nancy Andreasen’s own magnetic resonance imaging study, completed in 1986 and published in the Archives of General Psychiatry, added further evidence to the rapidly growing incrimination of the frontal lobes. This work on "hypofrontality" represents an interesting, if unwitting, confirmation of the ideas about the frontal lobes of the classic psychiatric tradition.
Edward Shorter. 2014.
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frontal lobes — (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) 1. In Psyllidae, two lobes or protrusions divided by a suture in which an ocellus is situated. 2. In Formicoidea, lateral projection of the frontal carina … Dictionary of invertebrate zoology
Frontal lobe injury — is caused by a number of conditions such as trauma, meningitis, or even prolonged lack of oxygen, such as in drowning.http://www.biawa.org/pax/generic/Frontal%20Lobe%20Injury.doc] The frontal lobe is an extremely vulnerable spot to injury due to… … Wikipedia
Frontal lobe — Infobox Brain Name = Frontal lobe Latin = lobus frontalis GraySubject = 189 GrayPage = 821 MapPos = MapCaption = Principal fissures and lobes of the cerebrum viewed laterally. (Frontal lobe is blue.) Caption = Caption2 = Orbital surface of left… … Wikipedia
Frontal lobe disorder — The frontal lobe of the brain plays a key role in higher mental functions such as motivation, planning, social behaviour, and speech production. A frontal lobe syndrome can result from a range of causes inlcuding head trauma, tumours,… … Wikipedia
frontal — front|al [ˈfrʌntl] adj [only before noun] formal 1.) at or relating to the front part of something ▪ the frontal armour of the new tanks 2.) frontal attack/assault a) a direct attack on the front of an army ▪ The minefields make an all out… … Dictionary of contemporary English
frontal lobe — UK / US noun [countable] Word forms frontal lobe : singular frontal lobe plural frontal lobes medical either of the two front parts of the brain … English dictionary
frontal — frontal, ale, aux [ frɔ̃tal, o ] n. m. et adj. • frontel XIIe; lat. frontalis 1 ♦ Bandeau de front. ♢ Frontail. 2 ♦ Adj. (XVIe) Anat. Du front. Os frontal, ou n. m. le frontal : os impair, médian et symétrique, form … Encyclopédie Universelle
Lobes cérébraux — Lobe (cerveau) Les lobes externes du cerveau humain. Sont aussi dessinés le cervelet en bleu et le tronc cérébral en noir qui sont des structures nerveuses distinctes du cerveau proprement dit. En anatomie, la surface des deux hémisphères du… … Wikipédia en Français
Lobes of the brain — The lobes of the brain were originally a purely anatomical classification, but have been shown also to be related to different brain functions. The telencephalon, the largest portion of the human brain, is divided into lobes, but so is the… … Wikipedia
frontal organ(s) — Sensory cells on anterior surface of cephalon. (Syn. haft organ, frontal eye) [McLaughlin, 1980]. Sensory cells or setae on front surface of heads on some branchiopods, copepods, and decapods [Moore and McCormick, 1969]. (Order Cladocera):… … Crustacea glossary